Braces/ Brackets:  These are the attachments that are placed (bonded) onto the teeth to help move them into better positions.   A wire running through the braces helps move the teeth.  Coloured elastics, or metal thread ties help hold the wire in the bracket slot.

Elastics:  are often used to help move the teeth in one arch or the other forwards, backwards, or sideways. 

Chain elastic / power chain:  is used to help close or diminish spaces.  

Expander is used to widen one or both arches, most often used when the width of the upper arch is inadequate to match/fit the width of the lower arch.  The expander helps correct a crossbite of the back teeth.

FORSUS springs: used when there is a skeletal or dental discrepancy with the upper teeth or jaw too far forwards relative to the lower jaw.  This helps us in correcting a large overjet (projection of upper teeth too far infront of the lower teeth).

Carriere arms:  also used sometimes to help correct a skeletal jaw or dental discrepancy.

Facemask:  used to help the upper jaw catch up to the lower jaw.  Most often used when there is an anterior underbite (like a bulldog bite).  

Orthognathic surgery (jaw surgery):  Sometimes orthodontics alone can not achieve the bite and skeletal correction. In these cases (2 - 3 % of orthodontic cases), braces AND jaw surgery are required, and the Orthodontist and the Oral maxillofacial Surgeon work together to get the best result possible for the patient.